Tread Labs

Hammer Toes - Causes and Remedies

What Are Hammer Toes?

While they may be small, your toes can cause you serious pain if injured. With the proper care, shoes, and insoles, however, injuries to the toes can be avoided. Hammer toe is one painful toe condition that can be avoided with proper shoe selection and the correct use of arch-supporting insoles.

Hammer toe occurs when the toe bends abnormally at the first joint (interphalangeal) and ends up looking like an upside-down V. The condition most often occurs on the lesser digits – the second through fifth toes.

There are two different types of hammer toes.

  1. Flexible hammer toes – If your smaller toes begin to form a V but you can still move them, you have flexible hammer toe. Go to your physician now. It is important to treat the condition early.

  2. Rigid hammer toes – If you wait too long to see a podiatrist or have severe arthritis, the tendon can become tight. The joint will become permanently misaligned and immobile.

Symptoms of hammer toes include:

  • Pain at the abnormal bend of the toe

  • Corns on the top of the joint

  • Redness and swelling at the contracture point

  • Pain in the toe joint and at the ball of the foot

  • Restriction of movement

Causes of Hammer Toe

Hammer toe develops when there is an imbalance in the muscles surrounding the toes. The muscle instability causes increased pressure on the toe’s tendons and joints, leading to the abnormal bending.

Like many other foot conditions, hammer toe is more common in women than in men, mainly because of shoe choices. High heels will increase the weight on the forefoot and toes. This abnormal distribution of weight will lead to the imbalance of the toe muscles.

The main causes of hammer toes are:

Treating Hammer Toes

If you develop the condition, you should see a foot specialist as soon as possible. Early treatment can prevent the hammer toe from becoming rigid. To relieve pain and discomfort before your doctor's visit try:

  • Over-the-counter, non-medicated hammer toe pads

  • Icing the toes

  • Exercises such as picking up your towel with your toes to stretch and strengthen the tendons and muscles

When you go to see a podiatrist, she should take an X-ray of the area. Once the severity of the hammer toe is diagnosed, you can begin more serious treatment approaches. These include:

  • Padding and taping – Like the hammer toe pads, a podiatrist's method of padding will bring comfort to the area and relieve pressure. Taping will keep the foot in its proper alignment.

  • Anti-inflammatory drugs or cortisone shots – If you have acute pain and severe inflammation, your physician might recommend this treatment plan.

  • Insoles – Most likely your podiatrist or physician will recommend the use of orthotics or insoles. If you have flat feet or high arches and you develop hammer toe, you will benefit from a pair of arch-supporting insoles.

  • Surgery – As with most treatments of foot pain, surgery is a last resort. The surgeon will remove the bony growth and restore the toe joint to its normal alignment.

To Prevent Hammer Toes, Use Insoles

Wearing proper footwear – including insoles – is key to preventing the development of hammer toes. Wear shoes that fit correctly and have wide toe boxes. Minimize time in high heels.

But proper footwear won't correct the underlying biomechanical irregularities that cause the condition. Flat, flexible feet are a main culprit. As your arch over flattens, your toes will try to stabilize your foot, causing increased pressure on the joints. High arches are another cause. People with very high arches have imbalances in the different tendons in the toes (extensor and flexor), which can result in hammer toes.

Our Stride insole will support your arch – no matter the height – and stabilize your foot, so your toes won’t be doing all the work. Your feet – and toes – will thank you.

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